Kenmas trading options
The commander called a meeting to collect our kenmas trading options. The bosses said they would contact us to go for training and the extra money, but they never did. Some of the guys later attacked the DDR building, but by that time I was into the next war so kenmas trading options said forget it. Kenmas trading options all the ex-combatants interviewed for this report were eligible for participation in United Nations funded and administered disarmament and training programs.
These programs had their successes, but also their failures. The Sierra Leonean program has recently finished and the second Liberian program is on-going, but the effectiveness of each program still needs to be evaluated. While successful disarmament programs are crucial to reintegration of ex-combatants back into society, they should not be expected to bear the entire burden of creating social stability following an armed conflict.
Far reaching efforts must also be made to provide for parallel community development programs assisting the general population whose lives, communities and villages were destroyed during armed conflict. The ex-combatants interviewed were potentially eligible for participation in one, two, or even three of these programs: LiberiaSierra Leone and Liberia The first Liberian disarmament program provided limited financial opportunities and almost no training.
Combatants eligible for this program said they either had not bothered to enroll or had enrolled but perceived little economic or social kenmas trading options from the program.
The majority of interviewees had participated in one or more of the later two programs: Both the Sierra Leonean and Liberian programs were jointly administered by the respective governments through a national commission, and the U.
The disarmament portions of the programs were funded through assessed U. During the six-month training period, ex-combatants were paid a small monthly stipend. Upon completion of their course, they were to be given tools they could later use in their respective trade.
The trades offered included carpentry, auto mechanics, masonry, tailoring, agriculture and a few others. Few combatants were given the opportunity to continue with primary or secondary education, although a limited number, including many commanders, were supported through secondary school or local kenmas trading options.
At the beginning of the process, each combatant was given an identification card which had his picture and which served as his passport to enter all subsequent phases of the program.
Liberian children jump rope during a lull in the fighting which engulfed the Liberian capital Monrovia in Kenmas trading options There is a significant possibility that many who registered were never, in fact, combatants: Former commanders were present throughout the program, purportedly to verify the identity of former combatants. This may have also led to the exclusion of kenmas trading options unwilling to share part of their benefits.
In mid, several cases of young men carrying ammunition crossing into Liberia from Sierra Leone to enroll fraudulently in the Kenmas trading options program were reported, according to the Sierra Leonean Police.
Sierra Leone Police officer Augustine M. Kalie, who is based in the southern town of Bo, described one case involving some thirty-eight Sierra Leoneans:. In June we kenmas trading options information of people organizing to take Sierra Leoneans over to Liberia to disarm so they could get a percentage of the Kenmas trading options benefit. An intel officer first came with the information that a group of young men would be moving to the border.
That day in June, we organized a team of officers and had them stop suspicious cars going along main road between Bo and the Liberian border. They stopped a Mazda truck with about 40 footballers all between years old. But we contacted our officers at Jimmi and were told the truck had continued South. We stopped kenmas trading options there and brought 38 for questioning in Bo. The striking disparity between the number of combatants expected to disarm and the number who were allowed entrance created serious difficulty for implementation of the DDRR program.
During Januarysome 4, ex-combatants enrolled in secondary schools were expelled because the DDRR program had failed to cover their school fees, provoking protests from the students. While their fees were eventually paid, tens of thousands of others are waiting to enter school and job training.
Liberians, long fearful of this volatile population, are concerned at what will happen if ex-combatants are left idle. The long wait between disarmament and entrance into a job training or education program also leaves them vulnerable for re-recruitment into another armed conflict. Kenmas trading options the first time in any demobilization exercise, the Liberian DDRR program adopted the policy of giving demobilized child combatants cash payment, in addition to other benefits.
According to United Nations employees and aid agencies working with the children, this policy not only undermined efforts to successfully reunify and reintegrate them back into their kenmas trading options and communities, but also made them more vulnerable for re-recruitment into future wars.
The kenmas trading options received the TSA after, in principle, spending from three kenmas trading options twelve weeks in a residential facility called an Interim Care Center ICCwhich was designed to provide counseling and facilitate reunification with their families and communities. It also undermined the kenmas trading options of reintegration by making the child feel under pressure to leave the ICC in haste.
But instead their families and commanders pressured them to get out quickly, so as to have access to the money. In some cases, the financial arrangement solidified the connection between child combatant and commander, making it less likely that the former child soldier would return to their families and civilian life.
The children could also potentially be seen by the commander as a future financial asset; that is, if recruited, the child could again be a ticket to future disarmament program pay-outs. The problem of children being vulnerable to re-recruitment is compounded by the lack of support for schools attempting to rehabilitate child ex-combatants.
The experiences of the kenmas trading options warriors interviewed for this report demonstrate the potential for failure in the current disarmament program in Liberia and in any similar future programs. Numerous combatants who were denied entrance into job training programs while going through Sierra Leonean DDR cited their disappointment and frustration as key factors in their decisions to cross a nearby border, pick up a gun, and once again return to the frontline.
A second chance for job training or education through participation in the Liberian DDRR program was an additional motivation for crossing the border; this plum was frequently offered by recruiters as well. Combatants interviewed by HRW consistently described a high degree of anticipation regarding the job training and education component of the Liberian disarmament program; they expected this component to make a significant difference in their lives.
Another was an inadequate grievance mechanism to submit complaints. Finally, many encountered difficulties in finding a job after training, due, in part, to a surplus of ex-combatants offering the same skill sets. This type of corruption which involved the fraud, embezzlement, diversion or misuse of disarmament benefits was not always immediately visible and evident, and was not directly addressed by those individuals responsible for managing either program.
The problems with corruption began with the issue of who maintained possession of the key element of any DDR program: They were concerned for two reasons: According to many of those interviewed for this report, the weapons the commanders collected during the Sierra Leonean and Liberian disarmament exercises were at times kept by the armed groups and at other times turned over to the peacekeepers.
In principle, the commanders were supposed to submit lists of fighters from whom they had received weapons. However, according to the ex-combatants interviewed by HRW who went through the process in Sierra Leone, the commanders could include on the list, and once the process began, admit into the program, anyone of their choosing. Commanders pledged to provide detailed lists of those in their units to the U.
However, there was no systematic provision of lists by factions involved in either the Sierra Leonean or Liberian armed conflicts. In any case, the lists appeared kenmas trading options be easily manipulated, and in many cases, never materialized. Since most CDF militia men had initially volunteered for service out of genuine concern for their communities, they kenmas trading options a profound sense that they had been betrayed by their commanders and government kenmas trading options officials whom they accused of stealing their benefits.
The gravity of their experiences varied; some were kept out of the process by their commanders all together and never received their ID card, which was the passport to entry into the rest of the program. Some received their ID card and some benefits, but were kept out kenmas trading options the job training component after their commanders instructed them to handover their ID cards for safe-keeping, or after their places had been taken by people using their ID numbers.
Mid- and high-level commanders had access to larger weapons which could be used by two or three combatants when disarming. According to some ex-fighters interviewed by Human Rights Watch, the commanders trained friends and relatives on the use of these weapons, and then sent them to enroll in exchange for a portion of the benefits.
A thirty-five-year-old regional warrior, who joined the CDF militias in after witnessing a massacre by kenmas trading options RUF, described his disappointment over being denied access to the DDR program by his commanders and how he was later recruited to fight in Liberia alongside his former enemies: I served with the CDF for seven good years but our elders played a trick on us. When it came time to disarm, I and many of my friends were not allowed. Instead, the commanders took their own children and friends who never fought for this country and disarmed them instead of us.
The problem was that not every Kamajor fighter had a gun. It was the same in other villages. Meanwhile a cousin of mine who never fought, but who knew the commander got the DDR card kenmas trading options the condition that he gaveof theleones to the commander.
That cousin went for a six months training in masonry. We later learned that the betrayal started way before DDR. The elders responsible for distributing it were selling it and sharing it among themselves. We saw the rice coming into Kenema in big, big trucks, but only the big men got it. And we went to the front hungry. One day a friend who was with the RUF came to me and told me about the Liberia kenmas trading options.
I disarmed in Zimmi ingot my firstleones [U. Some weeks before the course was to begin, our commanders asked us to send our number and name to them. I told them to check again, but they said, sorry, that number has already been benefited. I fought every kind kenmas trading options way.
These people are discouraging us, the youth. The privileges kenmas trading options by the international donors have been abused by these people. I want to lead a good life. But without education anything can encourage me to join and do bad. These problems seemed less pronounced in Liberia, likely due to the more relaxed entrance criteria.
However, there is still cause for concern, as a twenty-four-year-old mid-level commander who disarmed in Kenmas trading options explained:. There is corruption there. The commanders have a lot of guns, and he gives the guns to those he knows will give him a commission. Since not every combatant in the rebel factions and civilian militias had their own kenmas trading options, the disarmament programs provided for larger weapons like kenmas trading options and rocket launchers to admit more than one person.
This provided yet another avenue for corruption. I helped 12 people get into the DDR program; they were never Kamos, but Kenmas trading options did it to help them go forward.
You see, the RPG carries two people; one for kenmas trading options launcher and one for the bomb. Then, we were finding guns in the bush to give to kenmas trading options to disarm with. People came crying to me asking for help and this is what I did. We worked together to make our future brighter. They got theand they gave me kenmas trading options,
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